Data and Methods

In this page we explain the process followed by Development Gateway in the development of the TCDI Zambia website, as well as a description of the data sources and analysis methods used in each of the website’s themes.


View the methodologies for the respective themes.

The TCDI Zambia website was developed by Development Gateway. The website is intended to respond to the needs of government, civil society and academic stakeholders by providing access to demand-driven, high-quality data on national tobacco prevalence, products, and policies. The design, functionality and content for the website are led by the Zambian tobacco control community’s needs. This document outlines our overall website development methodology.

1. Identifying Stakeholder Needs

Between November and December 2021, the TCDI Zambia team conducted interviews with eighteen individuals from fifteen organizations: five government officials, ten civil society organizations, two academics and one development partner. Some of the interviews took place in-person while others took place via Zoom. The interviews aimed to explore how they make decisions, the data production and use for these decisions, potential data gaps, and data opportunities. 

2. Reviewing Stakeholder Feedback and Prioritising Needs

The stakeholder feedback was documented during the interviews and later analyzed to identify cross-cutting priorities, data needs and challenges, as well as the stakeholders’ preferred online tool formats for receiving information. The TCDI Zambia team used these priorities, data needs and challenges to propose a set of themes. These themes were validated through a workshop and then prioritized by stakeholders through an online poll. The stakeholders engaged during the assessment were all represented in the prioritization process. The following are the themes in the order in which they were prioritized by stakeholders. 

Priority themes

  1. Tobacco Harm
  2. Prevalence
  3. Industry Interference
  4. Taxation
  5. Illicit Trade
  6. Agriculture
  7. Enforcement

The TCDI Zambia team decided to include tobacco harm, prevalence, industry interference, taxation and illicit trade in the dashboard and to incorporate agriculture and enforcement within the other themes and not as stand alone pages.

In addition to the prioritized themes for the dashboard, the process also identified that the majority of stakeholders preferred visual formats such as infographics but also suggested that these visual formats are complemented by data tables and narratives to allow for efficient communication across varied audiences.

3. Research and Analysis

The TCDI team conducted research and data analysis for each theme, including secondary analysis  of already available and reliable datasets (e.g. data collected by academic institutions, global foundations or governments) and reviews of existing literature (e.g. peer-reviewed academic articles). Where required, the datasets were analyzed using statistical software such as Stata and R. Relevant statistics and graphs were produced, and explanatory text was written.

4. Website Design

Using the insight from the assessment regarding stakeholders’ preferences for visual formats as a starting point, the TCDI team designed the visual elements and functionality of the website. This process included designing the visual elements (infographics, chart formats and colors) and the user functionality (menus, data exports and search functionality).

5. Expert Review

In addition to the Ministry of health, two Zambian tobacco control subject matter experts were selected per theme to review the quality, context and reliability of the content. The University of Cape Town has also been involved in the review process. Their feedback was integrated into the text and the design of the website.

6. Periodic Updates

Periodically, the TCDI team will consult with experts, review newly available data, and update the website to reflect any changes, where necessary. Please fill out the Showcase Your Work form if you have newly available data or publications you would like to share.


The content in this website is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International licence. Users of this website can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the data. When reusing the data, users must:


Credit Tobacco Control Data Initiative as the source of data and indicate if changes are made to the data. 


If content is shared, it needs to be done using the same licence or similar licence. Users cannot share the data with more restrictive rights to use than under the original website licence.


Users can use the data as they see fit, but cannot use the material for commercial purposes.

See the full licence terms here. 


The information displayed on this website is obtained from multiple sources and has undergone a rigorous verification process. Nevertheless, the accuracy and validity of data and information cannot be guaranteed. The website should therefore be used for guidance only. The TCDI team, and the authors whom we reference, cannot be held responsible for how the information is used.


For any queries on the TCDI methodological approach and data sources, kindly contact the TCDI Data Manager